High-pressure apparatuses

High-pressure apparatuses

A split-cylinder type apparatus (ORANGE-1000), a split-sphere type apparatus (ORANGE-2000), and a DIA-type apparatus (ORANGE-3000) whose maximum press loads are 1000, 2000 and 3000 tonf, respectively, are installed (left photo is ORANGE-3000). These are utilized for phase equilibrium studies, material synthesis, melting experiments, and ultrasonic wave velocity measurements under high-pressure and high-temperature.
Large volume sample (> 1 cm3) can be pressurized using this world largest multi-anvil apparatus, BOTCHAN. This apparatus is utilized for sample synthesis of large-volume aggregate and single-crystal as well as for synthesis of nano-polycrystalline diamond (NPD) and other novel materials.
DIA type sintered-diamond anvil high-pressure apparatus (Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd)
These two apparatuses are with maximum press load of 1500 tonf and are called MADONNA-I, and –II, respectively. The (Ⅰ) is deformation-DIA (D-DIA) type and is capable of triaxial deformation of sample under high-pressure using top and bottom differential rams built-in guide blocks. The (Ⅱ) is utilized for generation of ultrahigh-pressure up to 100 GPa in conjunction with sintered diamond anvils.
Diamond anvil Cell (DAC) is the high pressure apparatus which can generate quite high pressure over 300 GPa statically. Sample is squeezed by two diamonds with small culet (flat tip of the anvil). Although the sample volume is smaller than that of Multi-anvil press, it can generate the pressure of the center of the Earth. In GRC, there are many kinds of cell type; Mao-Bell (lever) type, Cramp type, Symmetric type and Membrane type and so on.
High temperature can be generated by the irradiation of laser to the high pressure sample in DAC. There are two kinds of laser optics systems, one is for Fiber laser (SPI LASER, SP100-C; wavelength, 1090 nm; output, 100 W) and the other is for CO2 laser (Synrad; wavelength, 10.6 μm; output, 200 W (two 100 W lasers)). The laser is irradiated from both side of the DAC sample to minimize the temperature gradient of compressional axis direction. Especially the CO2 laser can generate over 5000 K, it can be used for melting experiment at high pressure condition. Pressure measurement system by Ruby fluoresces method is also installed.

Others
・Low temperature sample filling system for DAC

Related equipments

Elastic wave velocity of sample under high-pressure is measured by applying ultrasonic vibration using this system in conjunction with multi-anvil apparatus. This system consists of high-frequency oscillator, transducer and oscilloscope for precise measurement of small samples.
Geodynamics Research Center

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